Liquefaction potential of cohesionless soils
STATE OF NEW YORK DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION.
“This report provides basic knowledge about liquefaction of cohesionless soils under seismic loading. Presented also are the most widely accepted methods for evaluating the liquefaction potential of cohesionless oils in level ground, for estimating earthquake-induced settlements and for analyzing slope stability against flow slides. Sample problems to demonstrate each design procedure are included in the appendices. A brief review is presented of the seismicity of New York State, the level of which can be characterized as moderate. The State historically has experienced earthquakes up to a magnitude of 6.0. Earthquakes of this magnitude can cause structural and ground failures from liquefaction. Liquefaction-induced failure types and factors affecting liquefaction susceptibility are also reviewed. Finally, methods for improving in-situ soil conditions to reduce liquefaction susceptibility are discussed”.
Recommended Design Practice for Pile Foundations in Laterally Spreading Ground
PACIFIC EARTHQUAKE ENGINEERING RESEARCH CENTER
Scott A. Ashford, Ross W. Boulanger and Scott J. Brandenberg
“This report presents recommended procedures and practices for the design and performance evaluation of pile foundations for bridges in areas subject to lateral spreading hazards…”.
Criteria of soil liquefaction with SPT and fines content
K. TOKIMATSU et al.
Criteria for liquefaction of silty soils
Desmond C A ANDREWS and Geoffrey R MARTIN.
Case studies of stone columns improvement in seismic areas
BOHN Cécilia & LAMBERT Serge